# Refraction of light pdf

Refraction is a physical phenomenon that occurs every time a wave, such as light or sound, travels from one medium. (substance) to another in. The refractive index is the ratio of the speed of light in a vacuum (cvac) to the bending depends on the refractive indexes of the two media and the angle at. refraction. Refraction of light occurs because light travels at different speeds in The angle that the refracted ray makes with the normal is called the angle of.

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wavelength of light after refraction. •• Apply Snell's law s law to the solution of problems involving the refraction of light. •• Define and apply the concepts of total . refraction of light and the simple laws which govern those processes. reflectivity, specular reflection, diffuse reflection, refraction, refractive index, Snell's law. The Ray Model of Light. • Reflection and Mirrors. • Refraction, Snell's Law. • Total internal Reflection. References. SFU Ed: ,2,3,4,5,6,7. 6th Ed: ,2,3,4,5,6.

When you look at the text in a book, you are actually seeing the light that is reflected from it. Large telescopes use reflections to form images of stars and other astronomical objects. In fact, the only way we can see an object that does not itself emit light is if that object reflects light. The law of reflection is illustrated in, which also shows how the angles are measured relative to the perpendicular to the surface at the point where the light ray strikes. The law of reflection is very simple: The angle of reflection equals the angle of incidence. When we see our reflection in a mirror, it appears that our image is actually behind the mirror — we see the light coming from a direction determined by the law of reflection. The angles are such that our image appears exactly the same distance behind the mirror as we stand away from the mirror. Mirror Reflection: An image in a mirror appears as though it is behind the mirror.

The angles are such that our image appears exactly the same distance behind the mirror as we stand away from the mirror.

## Snell's law - Wikipedia

Mirror Reflection: An image in a mirror appears as though it is behind the mirror. The two rays shown are those that strike the mirror at just the correct angles to be reflected into the eyes of the viewer.

The angles are measured relative to the perpendicular to the surface at the point where the ray strikes the surface. We expect to see reflections off a smooth surface. Diffused light is what allows us to see a sheet of paper from any angle. Many objects, such as people, clothing, leaves, and walls, have rough surfaces and can be seen from all sides.

## Depth from Refraction Using a Transparent Medium with Unknown Pose and Refractive Index

A mirror, on the other hand, has a smooth surface compared with the wavelength of light and reflects light at specific angles. When the moon reflects off the surface of a lake, a combination of these effects takes place. Reflection: A brief overview of reflection and the law of reflection. For example, you may see the same fish appearing to be in two different places. This is because light coming from the fish to us changes direction when it leaves the tank, and in this case, it can travel two different paths to get to our eyes.

Refraction is responsible for a tremendous range of optical phenomena, from the action of lenses to voice transmission through optical fibers. Law of Refraction: Looking at the fish tank as shown, we can see the same fish in two different locations, because light changes directions when it passes from water to air. In this case, the light can reach the observer by two different paths, and so the fish seems to be in two different places.

This bending of light is called refraction and is responsible for many optical phenomena. The speed of light varies in a precise manner with the material it traverses. It makes connections between space and time and alters our expectations that all observers measure the same time for the same event, for example.

The speed of light is so important that its value in a vacuum is one of the most fundamental constants in nature as well as being one of the four fundamental SI units.

Why does light change direction when passing from one material medium to another? It is because light changes speed when going from one material to another.

Law of Refraction A ray of light changes direction when it passes from one medium to another. As before, the angles are measured relative to a perpendicular to the surface at the point where the light ray crosses it.

The change in direction of the light ray depends on how the speed of light changes. The change in the speed of light is related to the indices of refraction of the media involved. In mediums that have a greater index of refraction the speed of light is less. Imagine moving your hand through the air and then moving it through a body of water. It is more difficult to move your hand through the water, and thus your hand slows down if you are applying the same amount of force.

Similarly, light travels slower when moving through mediums that have higher indices of refraction. The amount that a light ray changes its direction depends both on the incident angle and the amount that the speed changes. For a ray at a given incident angle, a large change in speed causes a large change in direction, and thus a large change in angle.

## LIGHT-REFLECTION AND REFRACTION.ppt.pdf

The incoming ray is called the incident ray and the outgoing ray the refracted ray, and the associated angles the incident angle and the refracted angle. The second video discusses total internal reflection TIR in detail. If the refractive index is lower on the other side of the boundary and the incident angle is greater than the critical angle, the wave cannot pass through and is entirely reflected.

The critical angle is the angle of incidence above which the total internal reflectance occurs. What is Total Internal Reflection?

Critical angle The critical angle is the angle of incidence above which total internal reflection occurs. Consider a light ray passing from glass into air. The light emanating from the interface is bent towards the glass.

When the incident angle is increased sufficiently, the transmitted angle in air reaches 90 degrees. It is at this point no light is transmitted into air.

Fig 1: Refraction of light at the interface between two media, including total internal reflection. Optical Fiber Total internal reflection is a powerful tool since it can be used to confine light. One of the most common applications of total internal reflection is in fibre optics.

An optical fibre is a thin, transparent fibre, usually made of glass or plastic, for transmitting light.

The construction of a single optical fibre is shown in. Fig 2: Fibers in bundles are clad by a material that has a lower index of refraction than the core to ensure total internal reflection, even when fibers are in contact with one another. This shows a single fiber with its cladding. The basic functional structure of an optical fiber consists of an outer protective cladding and an inner core through which light pulses travel. The difference in refractive index of the cladding and the core allows total internal reflection in the same way as happens at an air-water surface show in.

If light is incident on a cable end with an angle of incidence greater than the critical angle then the light will remain trapped inside the glass strand. In this way, light travels very quickly down the length of the cable over a very long distance tens of kilometers.

Optical fibers are commonly used in telecommunications, because information can be transported over long distances, with minimal loss of data. Another common use can be found in medicine in endoscopes. The field of applied science and engineering concerned with the design and application of optical fibers are called fiber optics.

When unpolarized light is incident at this angle, the light that is reflected from the surface is therefore perfectly polarized. This special angle of incidence is named after the Scottish physicist Sir David Brewster — The physical mechanism for this can be qualitatively understood from the manner in which electric dipoles in the media respond to p-polarized light whose electric field is polarized in the same plane as the incident ray and the surface normal.

One can imagine that light incident on the surface is absorbed, and then re-radiated by oscillating electric dipoles at the interface between the two media. The refracted light is emitted perpendicular to the direction of the dipole moment; no energy can be radiated in the direction of the dipole moment. We traced the surface of the mirror that was used. We then drew the lines for the incident ray and the reflective ray, from the light source.

Using a protractor, we measured the angle of incidence and angle of reflection from the normal and recorded the data. These steps were repeated one more time using a different angle.

Steps were repeated using the concave and convex mirror surfaces facing the light source. The slit mask and concave mirror were adjusted to shine three parallel rays until the middle reflected ray was aligned with the middle incident ray. The concave surface was traced, the three incident points were marked on this trace, and the point where all three rays crossed the focal point was also marked. These points were connected with a straight line to the focal point and then the focal length was measured from the middle incident point from the focal point See Fig.

The line was extended until it had a length of 2f. This procedure was repeated for the convex mirror.

Refraction of light traveling from air to water 1. The laser beam was adjusted so that the incident point was at the center of the tank See Fig. While slowly moving the laser beam downward, we recorded the angles of incidence and refraction for three different angles.

Refraction of light traveling from water into air 1.

We set the angle of incidence to be less than the critical angle and recorded the angles of incidence and refraction see Fig.

We set the angle of incidence equal to the critical angle and recorded the angle of incidence. We set the angle of incidence to be greater than the critical angle and recorded the angles of incidence and refraction.

All incident light would be reflected back into the water total internal reflection. Table 1: This experiment also showed that all of the light rays were on the plane of incidence. This implies that the mirror has a radius of curvature, which can be determined by finding the center of the circle vertex. Halfway between the vertex and center of curvature is the focal point. The distance from the focal point to the vertex is known as the focal length.

## Depth from Refraction Using a Transparent Medium with Unknown Pose and Refractive Index

For a concave mirror, the rays that run parallel to the principal axis will reflect off of the mirror and converge at the focal point positive focal length , whereas for a convex mirror, the light rays will diverge at the focal point negative focal length. Because we approximated the index of air nair to be 1, we used the following formula to calculate, nwater: This means that there is zero refracted light, and all light is reflected back into the medium. Therefore, the ratio of the refractive index for the incidence medium to the refractive medium must be less than 1.